PERBEDAAN KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL US GAAP & IFRS

Seperti kita ketahui, terdapat perbedaan antara kerangka konseptual dari standar akuntansi Amerika (US GAAP) dan IFRS. Dalam proses harmonisasi kedua standar tersebut, IASB dan FASB melakukan kerjasama dalam bentuk Project, untuk meng-harmonisasi-kan kerangka konseptual. Project bersama tersebut menyusun tahapan sebagai berikut :

Fase                            Topics

A                                 Objectives and qualitative characteristics

B                                 Definitions of elements, recognition and derecognition

C                                 Measurement

D                                 Reporting entity concept

E                                  Boundaries of financial reporting, and Presentation and Disclosure

F                                  Purpose and status of the framework

G                                 Application of the framework to not-for-profit entities

H                                 Remaining Issues, if any

Pada bulan September 2010, fase A sudah diselesaikan, sedangkan fase yang sedang berjalan hingga saat ini adalah fase B, C dan D

(Sumber : http://www.ifrs.org/Current+Projects/IASB+Projects/Conceptual+Framework/Conceptual+Framework.htm

Ringkasan perbedaan kerangka konseptual kedua standar tersebut dapat dilihat dalam table di bawah ini :

Level 1 : Objectives of Financial Reporting:

US GAAP IFRS
  • To provide information useful for investment and credit decisions.
  • Provide information about the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of an entity that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions.
  • To provide information useful for predicting the amount, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows to the business.
  • Users are present & potential investors, employees, lenders, suppliers & other trade creditors, customers, governments & their agencies & the general public.
  • To provide information about economic resources, claims against those resources, and changes in both.

Level 2 Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information

US GAAP IFRS
Relevance – Ingredients:

  • Predictive value – helps users predict outcome of past, present, and future events
  • Feedback value – helps to confirm or correct prior predictions
  • Timeliness – available before loses capacity to influence a decision
Relevance – Ingredients:

  • Predictive value
  • Confirmatory value
  • Materiality
Reliability –Ingredients:

  • Representational faithfulness
  • Neutral
  • Verifiable
Reliability

  • Faithful representation
  • Neutrality
  • Substance over form
  • Prudence (when there is uncertainty, errors on the side of providing more info and ensure conservatism (lower assets/revenues, higher liabilities/expense)
  • Completeness
Comparability Comparability
Consistency

 

Conceptual Framework Level 2 Elements of Financial Statements

US GAAP IFRS
Assets

Liabilities

Equity

Investment by Owners

Distributions to Owners

Comprehensive Income

 

Revenues

Gains

Expenses

Losses

Asset

Liabilities

Equity

Capital Maintenance  (resulting from the revaluation of assets and liabilities)

Income (Revenues and gains)

Expenses (Expenses and losses)

Conceptual Framework Level 3 Recognition and Measurement – Basic Assumptions

US GAAP IFRS
  1. Going Concern
  2. Economic Entity
  3. Monetary Unit
  4. Periodicity
  1. Going concern
  2. Accrual Basis

 

Conceptual Framework Level 3 Recognition and Measurement – Principles

US GAAP IFRS
  1. Historical Cost
  1. Revenue Recognition
  1. Matching
  2. Full Disclosure
  1. Historical cost
  2. Current cost (what would have to be paid today to acquire an equivalent asset.  This often results in the same valuation as fair value)
  3. Realizable value (amount of cash that would be currently obtained if asset is disposed of)
  4. Fair value
  5. Revenue Recognition
  6. Expense Recognition
  7. Full disclosure

Conceptual Framework Level 3 Recognition and Measurement – Constraints

US GAAP IFRS (in reference to Level 2 Relevance & Reliability Qualitative Characteristics)
1. Cost benefit

2. Materiality

3. Industry practices

4. Conservatism

  1. Balance between benefit and cost
  2. Timeliness
  3. Balance between qualitative characteristics

Sumber : www.sba.pdx.edu

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One Response to PERBEDAAN KERANGKA KONSEPTUAL US GAAP & IFRS

  1. noX says:

    infonya t.o.p b.g.t (^^)d
    makasih ya,,,,
    terus menulis :)

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